CC in Armenia

Country Overview

Country Overview

Country Overview

Political Map
Topographical Map
Administrative Map (Regions)
Satellite Image
Administrative Map of the City of Yerevan City (Districts)

Location: Armenia is a mountainous landlocked country covering 29,743 km2. Located in the Southern Caucasus bordering Georgia to the north, Azerbaijan to the east, Iran to the south and Turkey to the southwest.

Population: As of 2014, the population is 3010.6 thousand people, 63.5 per cent is urban population.

State structure: The Republic of Armenia (RA) was established on September 21, 1991. Armenia made transition from a semipresidential system to a parliamentary republic as a result of constitutional amendments pursuant to the referendum held on December 6, 2015. The Republic of Armenia is a sovereign, democratic, social and legal state. The state power is administered pursuant to the Constitution and the laws based on the principle of separation of the legislative, executive and judicial powers.

Climate: The climate is highland continental, dry with four seasons. The average annual temperature is 5.5°C, ranging from -8°C in high-altitude mountainous regions  (2,500 m and higher) to 12-14°C in low-traced valleys.

The temperature significant increase trends were observed in recent decades: by 0.4°C for the period of 1929-1996, by 0.85°C for the period of 1929-2007 and by 1.23°C for the period of 1929-2016.

The average annual precipitation is 592 mm.

Economy: As of 2014, GDP is 4,829 billion AMD (11,610 million, current US$); GDP, PPP - 23,166 million (constant 2011 international $); GDP per capita, PPP - 7,694 (constant 2011 international $).

Trade and services play a key role in national economy, accounting for 45.3 per cent of GDP in 2014, and are on a continuous growth trend.

Fuel and Energy Resources: Armenia lacks domestic industrial-scale fossil fuel resources and meets its demand for fuel through imports. In 2014, nearly 69 per cent of Total primary energy supply (TPES) of Armenia was imported considering nuclear energy as an indigenous resource.

The Republic of Armenia is an independent, democratic, social and legal state. The Declaration of State Independence of the Republic of Armenia was adopted on 23 August 1990, and the referendum on the Declaration of Independence was held on 21 September 1991. On 21 December of the same year Armenia became a member of the CIS, on 2 March 1992 - a member of the United Nations, on 25 January 2001 - a member of the Council of Europe and on 5 February 2003 - a member of the World Trade Organisation. The Government of the country has executive, legislative, and judicial branches.

According to the Constitution and the Law on Administrative Territorial Division, the administrative-territorial units of the Republic of Armenia include the marzes (regions) and hamaynks (communities). The territory of the Republic of Armenia is divided into ten marzes, plus the City of Yerevan. Public administration in the marzes of the RoA is regulated the Presidential Decree on Public Administration in the Marzes of the Republic of Armenia and other legal acts. The distinctive features of local self-government and formation of local self-government bodies shall be specified by law. The Marzpets (Marz Governors) implement the government's regional policy, coordinate the activities of local branches of the executive authority, except as otherwise specified by law.

The marzes (regions) of the Republic of Armenia are: Aragatsotn Marz, Ararat Marz, Armavir Marz, Gegharkunik Marz, Kotayk Marz, Lori Marz, Shirak Marz, Syunik Marz, Tavush Marz and Vayotz Dzor Marz.

According to the Law on Local Self-Governing in the City of Yerevan adopted on 26.12.2008, Yerevan has the status of a self-government body. The Council is the highest self-governing body in the city of Yerevan. It carries out effective supervision and monitoring over certain parts of the activities of the Mayor of Yerevan. For an efficient implementation of local self-governance and territorial dministration, the city of Yerevan is divided into 12 administrative districts. Each district is managed by a Head of Administrative District appointed by the Mayor.

The districts of Yerevan are: Ajapnyak, Avan, Arabkir, Davtashen, Erebuni, Kentron, Malatya-Sebastya, Nor-Nork, Nork-Marash, Nubarashen, Shengavit, and Qanaqer-Zeytun.

Almost immediately after gaining independence, Armenia plunged into a period of deep economic and social crises resulting in mass impoverishment of the country's population. In an effort to reverse the country's decline and establish a liberal market regime, the Government of Armenia (GoA) introduced comprehensive reforms in the mid-1990s. These reforms, which included the adoption of a macro-economic stability model based on strict fiscal discipline, low inflation and minimum deficits, led to a turn-around in the economy.

 

Political Map of the Republic of Armenia

Political Map (original)
Source: www.geology.com
 
Topographical Map of the Republic of Armenia
Topographic Map (original)
Source: www.maps.grida.no
 
Marzes (Regions) of the Republic of Armenia
Marzes of Armenia (original)
Source: www.himnadram.org
 
Satellite Image of the Republic of Armenia
Satellite Image (original)
Source: www.geology.com
 
Administrative Map of the City of Yerevan City (Districts)
Districts of Yerevan (original)
Source: www.wikipedia.org

Addressing Climate Change

Addressing Climate Change

Armenia, as a developing country not included in the Annex I of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), has no obligations towards greenhouse gas emissions reduction. However, considering the importance of global efforts to combat climate change, the Republic of Armenia has ratified the Paris Agreement and Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol as well as submitted its Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (RA Government Protocol Decree N41 of September 10, 2015).

 

Since the UNFCCC ratification, once every five years the Government of Armenia approves the list of measures for implementing the country's commitments under the international environmental conventions. The last one, approved by the RA Government Protocol Decree (N 49-8, 2016) includes inter alia the measures to be implemented during 2017-2021 in fulfillment of the obligations and provisions arising from the UNFCCC and Paris Agreement.

 

Intended Nationally (Determined) Contributions defines the country's pathway up to 2050 towards its contribution to implementing the Paris Agreement.

 

In this context, Armenia continues mainstreaming and integrating climate change consideration into national and sectoral development policies. As such, implementation of energy efficiency measures and introduction of renewable energy sources are high priority, contributing also to economic and social goals. To this aim, Armenia has already been undertaking tanglible steps.

 

The energy sector development strategy is based upon development and expansion of economically viable and technically available renewable energy sources, promotion of energy efficiency, development of nuclear energy, and diversification of fuel supply chains along with regional cooperation and integration. This strategy is reflected in the most recently (2013-2017) adopted policy papers, amendments to the RA laws, development concepts as well as international agreements and investment programs.

  • Strategies and polices
  • Energy Security Concept of the RA, 2013: The concept defines the main ways for ensuring energy security to provide affordable and reliable energy supply, considering the lack of domestic fossil fuel resources of industrial significance. The concept declares the development of nuclear energy and development of and investment in renewable energy and energy efficiency critical towards achieving energy security.
  • Energy Security 2014-2020 Action Plan, 2014: The action plan identifies specific actions to be implemented towards achieving goals set forth in RA Energy Security Concept.
  • RA Energy System Long-Term (up to 2036) Development Ways, 2015: This long-term strategic program defines the development strategy to meet the criteria of energy security at the lowest cost based upon development of nuclear energy and modern gas fired generation plants, expansion of economically viable and technically available renewable energy sources and diversification of fuel supply chains.

 

  • Amendments to the RA laws
  • Amendment to the RA Energy Law, 2014. The Amendment is aimed at creating favorable conditions for promotion of renewable energy sources by extending the power purchasing agreement (with the exception of small hydroelectric power plants (HPPs)) from 15 to 20 years.
  • Amendment to the RA Energy Law, 2016. The Amendment is aimed at promoting the solar energy generation for own needs with peak capacity of up to 150 kW (inclusive) by stipulating that such power plants generation can be carried out without the activity licenses issued by the RA Public Services Regulatory Commission.

 

  • Amendment to the RA Energy Saving and Renewable Energy Law, 2016.
  • Adopts the provisions for net metering of solar energy for autonomous producers, stipulating a sales price for net metering.
  • Stipulates mandatory compliance with the energy efficiency requirements in state investment projects and residential construction.
  • Development concept
  • Hydro Energy Development Concept of the RA, 2016: The concept is aimed at promoting the hydro power generation, considering the importance of public-private partnership and certain legislative guarantees to make the investment environment more attractive.
  • Investment programs
  • Scaling up Renewable Energy Programme (SREP), 2014. The Programme identifies renewable energy technologies and projects that can best contribute to Armenia's energy, economic and environmental goals and outlines the activities that must be carried out to implement those  projects. The RA government set target to increase the share of renewables (without large HPPs) in the power generation mix from from 8.91 per cent to 21 per cent by 2020, and to 26 per cent by 2025. The Programme is financed within the framework of the Climate Investment Funds.
  • Solar PVs construction Investment Program, 2016.  The Programe is aimed at the construction of solar PVs with total capacity of about 110 MW.
  • Covenant
  • Supporting participation of Eastern Partnership and Central Asian Cities in the Covenant of Mayors. In the cities joined the Covenant of Mayors, it is aimed at achieving 20 per cent GHG emissions reduction by 2020 and 30 per cent by 2030, compared to the baseline emissions.

 

GHG Inventory

GHG Inventory

408094840National Greenhouse Gas Inventory Report of the Republic of Armenia for 2013-2014 has been developed within the framework of the “Development of Armenia’s Fourth National Communication to the UNFCCC and Second Biennial Report” UNDP-GEF Project.

It has been compiled according to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories for Energy, Industrial Processes and Product Use (IPPU), Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use (AFOLU) and Waste sectors.

The greenhouse gas inventory covers emissions and removals of four direct greenhouse gases –carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) – in a series of time from 2000 to 2014. It includes also estimates of so-called indirect greenhouse gases – carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs) and sulfur dioxide (SO2).

The Armenia's greenhouse gas total emissions in 2014 amounted to 10,450.71 Gg CO2eq. and net emissions - 9,973.57 Gg CO2eq. .

The per capita GHG emissions was 3.31 t CO2eq. in 2014. The greenhouse gas emissions per unit of GDP was 0.94 t CO2eq., showing a relatively stable level since 2010.

Consequences for Armenia

Consequences of Climate Change in Armenia

The calculations showed that the average air temperature in Armenia will increase by 1.7oC,  the precipitation on the territory of Armenia will decrease by about 10 in 2100.

These consequences can essentially affect the climate-dependent branches of economy.

Global climate change and internal micro-climatic changes on the territory of Armenia might have the following consequences:

  • The modelling of the vulnerability of mountain ecosystems of Armenia with regard to the climate change for the next 100 years foresees a shift of the landscape-zone borders up the mountain for 100-150m. It is expected that the desert-semi-desert zone area will expand by 33. The steppe belt will be expanded by 4 and shifted upwards by 150-200m, which will cause transformation of steppe vegetation communities. The lower border of the forest belt will move upward by 100-200m. The area of sub-Alpian belt will be reduced by 21 , and that of the Alpian belt - by 22 on the average,
  • Increase of climate aridity and intensification of desertification processes can be expected under the projected increase of temperature and precipitation reduction.
  • In case of the accepted scenario of climate change, reduction of annual river flow by 15 , and increase of evaporation from the surface of Lake Sevan by 13-14 is expected.
  • Under the projected change of climatic characteristics, the efficiency of plant cultivation in Armenia can be reduced by 8-14 . The productivity of cereals will be reduced on average by 9-13 , vegetable cultures by 7-14 , potato by 8-10 , fruits by 5-8 . The productivity of more heat-resistant grapes can grow by 8-10 .
  • The following consequences in pasture cattle-breeding are projected: reduction of the pasture area as a whole and reduction of the stocks of their production by 4-10 , in which the areas of the most valuable and productive pastures of sub-Alpian and Alpian belts by 19-22 , The productivity of mountain hayfields will decrease by 7-10 . In this respect the number of cattle will reduce by 30 and production of cattle-breeding by 28-30 is expected.
  • In the case of the expected climate change, an increase of cardiovascular diseases, especially among the most vulnerable part of population is projected. There is a possibility of outbreak of plague and malaria as a result of an expansion of the natural habitat of carriers. According to the forecast there could be an aggravation of epidemic situation for cholera. It is also predicted that an increase of intestinal diseases as a result of longer duration of the period with optimum temperatures for reproduction and development of causative agents in soil and water will take place.